30 One-linerūü¶∑ Endodontics Notes For Dental Students | Solve Dental MCQs easily

30 One-linerūü¶∑ Endodontics Notes For Dental Students | Solve Dental MCQs easily

Endodontics High Yield Dental Study Notes For Dental Exams

Preparing for Dental exams like NEET MDS, AIIMS MDS, NBDE, DAT or other dental exams like dental hygienist or dental therapist? You will find these endodontics notes as your saviour as we present to you the best endodontic high yield notes from top dental endodontic books. Enjoy ! 

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Electric pulp testing

For electric pulp testing , the suspected tooth should be tested at least twice to confirm the results. The tip of the testing probe that will be placed in contact with the tooth structure must be coated with a water- or petroleum-based medium. The most commonly used medium is toothpaste. The coated probe tip is placed in the incisal third of the facial or buccal area of the tooth  to  be  tested. Once  the  probe  is  in  contact  with  the tooth, the patient is asked to touch or grasp the tester probe, unless  a  lip  clip  is  used . This  completes  the circuit and initiates the delivery of electric current to the tooth

Traumatic dental injury

The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries varies according to the  population  studied,  but  these  injuries  occur  most commonly in children 7 to 10 years of age

Luxation Injury

The most common type of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition  are  luxation  injuries,  whereas  crown  fractures  are  the predominant dental injury to the permanent dentition

Injectable local anaesthetics

The most common forms of injectable local anesthetics are in the  amide  class

Lidocaine

As a frame of reference, the most commonly used injection for anesthetization of maxillary teeth is infiltration with a cartridge of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine

NaOCl

NaOCl (Sodium Hypochlorite)  is  the  most  commonly  used  irrigating  solution because of its an antibacterial capacity and the ability to dissolve necrotic tissue, vital pulp tissue, and the organic components of dentin and biofilms in a fast manner

Pulp exposure

Direct exposure of the dental pulp to the oral cavity is the most obvious route of endodontic infection. Caries is the most common cause of pulp exposure, but bacteria may also reach the  pulp  via  direct  pulp  exposure  as  a  result  of  iatrogenic restorative  procedures  or  trauma.  The  exposed  pulp  tissue comes in direct contact with oral bacteria from carious lesions, saliva, or plaque accumulated onto the exposed surface. Almost invariably,  exposed  pulps  will  undergo  inflammation  and necrosis and become infected. The time elapsed between pulp exposure and infection of the entire canal is unpredictable, but it is usually a slow process

Candida albicans

Fungi are only occasionally found in primary infections, but Candida species have been detected in root canal‚Äďtreated teeth in up to 18% of the cases.¬† Fungi gain access to¬† root¬† canals¬† via¬† contamination¬† during¬† endodontic¬† therapy (secondary infection) or they overgrow after inefficient intra-canal antimicrobial procedures that cause an imbalance in the primary¬† endodontic¬† microbiota.¬†Candida¬† albicans¬† is¬† by¬† far the¬† most¬† commonly¬† detected¬† fungal¬† species¬† in¬† root¬† canal‚Äďtreated teeth. This species has several properties that can be involved¬† in¬† persistence¬† following¬† treatment,¬† including¬† its ability to colonize and invade dentin and resistance to calcium hydroxide

Acute apical abscess

Apical periodontitis lesions are formed in response to intraradicular infection and by and large constitute an effective barrier against spread of the infection to the alveolar bone and other body sites. In most situations, apical periodontitis inflammatory lesions succeed in preventing microorganisms from invading  the  periradicular  tissues.  Nevertheless,  in  some  specific circumstances,  microorganisms  can  overcome  this  defense barrier  and  establish  an  extraradicular  infection.  The  most common  form  of  extraradicular  infection  is  the  acute  apical abscess, characterized by purulent inflammation in the periradicular  tissues  in  response  to  a  massive  egress  of  virulent bacteria from the root canal

Endodontic file separation

The most common causes for endodontic file separation are improper use, limitations in physical properties, inadequate access, root canal anatomy, and possibly manufacturing defects

Root resection

If the maxillary sinus is entered during surgery, special care must be taken to prevent infected root fragments and debris from entering the sinus. The most commonly used root resection  technique  involves  grinding  the  root  apex  with  a  high-speed  drill  for  approximately  3  mm  in  an  apical  to  coronal direction;  therefore,  an  opening  could  allow  infected  debris into the sinus. A sinus opening can be temporarily occluded with a material such as Telfa gauze, although the gauze should be secured so as to prevent inadvertent displacement into the sinus. A suture can be placed through the packing material to prevent displacement and aid retrieval.

Suture material

The  properties  of  an  ideal  suture  material  for  periradicular surgery include pliability for ease of handling and knot tying, a smooth surface that discourages bacterial growth and wicking of  oral  fluids,  and  a  reasonable  cost.  Suture  material  in  size  5-0 is most commonly used, although some clinicians prefer slightly  larger  (4-0)  or  smaller  (6-0)  suture.  Sutures  smaller than 6-0 tend to cut through the relatively fragile oral tissues when tied with the tension required to approximate the wound margins.

Asymptomatic apical periodontitis

Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis With Reactive Bone Formation: The lesion is usually observed in young patients, and the mandibular first molar is most commonly involved. The teeth often have gross carious lesions and can be vital or nonvital. They are  usually  asymptomatic.  Radiographically,  the  lesion  may have a well-defined or ill-defined radiopaque mass associated with the apex of an endodontically involved tooth. The lamina dura around the root apex is usually intact

External Root resorption

The prevalence of external inflammatory resorption (EIR) after luxation injuries ranges from almost  5% 4 to 18%. It  affects  30%  of  replanted  avulsed teeth. EIR is the most common form of external resorption root resorption after luxation and avulsion injuries

Migraine

Migraine is a common headache experienced by about 18% of females and 6% of males. It is associated with significant amounts of disability, which is the motivating factor that brings the patient to seek care and the reason why this type of headache is the one most often seen in medical clinics. Migraine has  been  reported  to  present  as  toothache and  is likely the most common neurovascular disorder to do so

Cluster headaches

Cluster headaches and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs)¬†are rare neurovascular disorders that are strictly unilateral pains defined by the concurrent¬† presentation¬† of¬† at¬† least¬† one¬† ipsilateral¬† autonomic symptom‚ÄĒsuch as nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, lacrimation, eyelid edema, periorbital swelling, facial erythema, ptosis, or miosis‚ÄĒthat occurs with the pain.¬†The major distinguishing features between these headache disorders are the duration and frequency of the pain episodes, as well as the gender most often afflicted. Cluster headache is the most common of the group, occurring¬† in¬† men¬† three¬† to¬† four¬† times¬† more¬† often¬† than¬† in women, with pain episodes lasting between 15 minutes and 2 hours that occur at a frequency of eight episodes per day to one every other day. These headaches come in clusters, with active periods of 2 weeks to 3 months,thus the name. Elimination of pain after 10 minutes with inhalation of 100% oxygen is diagnostic for cluster headache, whereas sublingual ergotamine and sumatriptan are also effective acute treatments for cluster headache.

Acyclovir

Oral acyclovir has become the most common treatment for acute herpetic outbreaks and has been shown to be efficacious in decreasing the duration and severity of pain after herpes zoster infection. Efficacy is based only on administration in the prevesicular, not the vesicular, stage. The addition of prednisolone to acyclovir produces only slight benefits over acyclovir  alone.  Neither  acyclovir  alone  nor  its  combination with prednisolone appears to reduce the frequency of postherpetic neuralgia

Neuropathy

In the orofacial region, neuropathies are most commonly seen in the maxillary premolar area and molar region.

Cardiac pain : Dental relation

Cardiac pain has been cited as the cause of nonodontogenic toothache in a number of case reports. Classically, cardiac pain presents as a crushing substernal pain that most commonly radiates to the left arm, shoulder, neck, and face. Although not as common, anginal pain may present solely as dental pain, generally felt in the lower left jaw. 16  Similar to pain of pulpal origin, cardiac pain can be spontaneous and diffuse, with a cyclic pattern that fluctuates in intensity from mild to severe. The pain can also be intermittent and the patient may be completely asymptomatic at times. The quality of cardiac pain when referred to the mandible is chiefly aching and sometimes pulsatile.

Dental ledge

Ledge formation can occur during biomechanical preparation of  the  canal  system,  especially  when  the  canals  are  more curved.  There  are  a  number  of  factors  associated  with  ledge formation such as the instrumentation technique, instrument type, root canal curvature, tooth type, working length, master radicular file size, clinician’s level of expertise, and canal location.  Failure  to  precurve  the  instruments,  the  inability  to achieve a proper glide path to the apex, and forcing large files into curved canals are perhaps the most common reasons for ledge  formation. The  incidence  of  ledge  formation  was reported  to  increase  significantly  when  the  curvature  of  the canal was greater than 20 degrees; more than 50% of the canals in the study were ledged when the canal curvature was greater than 30 degrees

Extraction injury

The  highest  incidence  of  reported  damage  to  the  inferior alveolar  and  lingual  nerves  is  associated  with  third  molar extractions. Local  anesthesia  was  the  second  most common cause of nerve injury, and its exact mechanism can be confusing. It may be physical (needle damage, epineural /perineural  hemorrhage)  or  chemical  (local  anesthetic  contents)

Inferior alveolar nerve

A  relatively  small  percentage  of  inferior alveolar nerve (IAN)  injury  cases  (8%)  are  associated  with  an  endodontic  procedure. Mandibular second molars are most commonly associated with this population, but cases involving treatment of mandibular first molars and premolars have also been reported

Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema

Most early reports of cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema (CFSE) usually follow tooth extractions and were the result of activities the patient engaged in that raised intraoral pressures. With the introduction of air-driven handpieces, there was an increased risk of CFSE. Although tooth extraction, especially of mandibular third molars, remains the most commonly  reported  reason  for  CFSE.

Luxation injury

Luxation injuries as a group are the most common of all dental injuries, with a reported incidence ranging from 30% to 44%

Vertical root fracture

The most common dental procedure  contributing  to  vertical  root  fractures  is  endodontic treatment. Most vertical root fractures occur in endodontically treated teeth. VRFs usually do not occur during the actual obturation  of  the  root  canal,  but  rather  they  occur  long  after  the procedure has been completed. The etiology of VRFs is multifactorial. It is likely that in the presence of one or an accumulation of more predisposing factors, the repeated functional or parafunctional occlusal loads may eventually lead, over months or even years, to the development of a VRF. Predisposing factors may include natural ones, such as the anatomy of the root, or iatrogenic ones, such as the excessive forces during root canal instrumentation, excessive tooth structure removal, or excessive obturation pressure

Pulp fillings

The filling materials most commonly used for primary pulp fillings are ZOE paste, iodoform paste, and Ca(OH) 2

Apexification

Apexification,  or  root-end  closure,  is  the  process  in  which  a nonvital, immature, permanent tooth that has lost the capacity for  further  root  development  is  induced  to  form  a  calcified barrier at the root terminus.This barrier forms a matrix against which root canal filling or restorative material can be compacted with length control. Until  recently,  the  most  widely  accepted  technique  has involved cleaning and filling the canal with a temporary paste, most  commonly  Ca(OH)2 ,  which  was  replaced  at  intervals over  several  months  to  stimulate  the  formation  of  an  apical calcified barrier

Lateral periodontal cyst

The  most  common  location of lateral periodontal cysts is  the  mandibular cuspid-bicuspid  area,  although  numerous  cases  have  been reported in the anterior maxilla

Salivary hypofunction

Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary secretion. The most common cause of salivary hypofunction in the elderly is medication use, and it is most commonly associated with dental caries and oral fungal infections

Home bleaching

Most  common  home  bleaching  products  contain  carbamide peroxide at about 10% strength, but it can reach up to 30%  (equivalent  to  3.5%  to  8.6%  hydrogen  peroxide)

Internal bleaching

The  mix  of  sodium perborate  with  water  or,  alternatively,  anesthetic  solution remains  the  most  commonly  used  technique  for  internal bleaching of nonvital teeth. The enhancement of the mixture with 30% hydrogen peroxide is being used less due to concerns of  cervical  root  resorption  but  remains  an  option  for  stains resistant  to  whitening  that  require  stronger  chemical  compounds to achieve good bleaching results

At-Home bleaching

The most common bleaching agent for at-home bleaching is 10% to  22%  carbamide  peroxide  with  an  effective  yield  of  4%  to 7.5% hydrogen peroxide

External bleaching

The  most  commonly  observed  adverse  effect  after  external bleaching is gingival irritation, which may be associated with an  increase  in  tooth  sensitivity. Most  of  the  gingival irritations are mild to moderate and disappear after 2 to 3 days without  causing  significant  discomfort  for  the  patient.  For in-office bleaching, these issues are mostly related to soft tissue exposures to excessive bleaching gel or liquid hydrogen peroxide in amounts less than necessary to cause severe discomfort or tissue damage. However, when a patient reports tissue irritation,  the  soft  tissues  should  be  checked  immediately. Warning signs other than the patient’s sensation are air bubbles rising from the gingival margins. The area should be copiously rinsed  without  delay.  A  vitamin  E  preparation  should  be  on hand to serve as an emergency dressing that will provide an immediate  antioxidative  effect