30+ High Yield Notes From Oral Pathology For Dental Students

30+ High Yield Notes From Oral Pathology For Dental Students

These 25+ bullet point high yield oral pathology notes are a must for your dental exams like NEET MDS, NBDE, AIIMS MDS or in your BDS exams

Cleft lip

Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies seen at birth.

Join Our Whatsapp Group

You get notified of every updates

Dentalsupernotes logo

Hemangioma

Hemangioma : A  type  of  birthmark;  the  most  common benign (noncancerous) tumor of the skin. Hemangiomas may be present at birth (faint red mark) or appear in the first  month  after  birth.  A  hemangioma  is  also  known  as a  port  wine  stain,  strawberry  hemangioma,  and  salmon patch

Hemifacial atrophy

Hemifacial  atrophy  is  a  syndrome  with diverse presentation. The most common early sign is a painless cleft, the ‘coup de sabre,’ near the midline of the face or forehead. This marks the boundary between normal and atrophic tissue. A bluish hue may appear in the skin overlying atrophic fat

Orofacial granulomatosis

Dietary or other antigens are the most common identified causes of orofacial granulomatosis. Contact antigens are sometimes implicated

Varix

A  varix  is  a  dilated,  tortuous  vein,  most  commonly  a  vein which is subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure but poorly supported by surrounding tissue. Varices involving the lingual ranine veins are relatively common, appearing as red or purple shotlike clusters of vessels on the ventral surface and lateral borders of the tongue as well as in the floor of the mouth. However, varices also do occur in other oral sites such as the upper and lower lip, buccal mucosa, and buccal commissure

ALHE

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is seen most commonly in Asians, followed by Caucasians. Although less commonly, blacks too can develop ALHE. ALHE is somewhat more common in females; however, a male predominance has been  noted  in  selected  Asian  studies.  ALHE  presents  most commonly in patients aged 20–50 years, with mean onset of 30–33 years. This condition is rare in elderly patients and in the non-Asian pediatric population.

Supplemental tooth

The most common supplemental tooth is the permanent maxillary lateral incisor

Hypocalcemia

Enamel  Hypoplasia  due  to  Hypocalcemia : Tetany,  induced by a decreased level of calcium in the blood, may result from several conditions, the most common being vitamin D  deficiency  and  parathyroid  deficiency  (parathyroprivic tetany). In tetany the serum calcium level may fall as low as 6–8 mg per 100 ml, and at this level enamel hypoplasia is frequently  produced  in  teeth  developing  concomitantly.  This type of enamel hypoplasia is usually of the pitting variety and thus  does  not  differ  from  that  resulting  from  a  nutritional disturbance or exanthematous disease

Mesioangular impaction

Mesioangular impaction : The third molar lies obliquely in the bone, the crown pointing in a mesial direction, usually in contact with the distal surface of the root or crown of the second molar. This is the most common type of impaction

Submerged teeth

‘Submerged’  teeth  are  deciduous  teeth,  most  commonly mandibular  second  molars,  that  have  undergone  a  variable degree  of  root  resorption  and  then  have  become  ankylosed to  the  bone.  This  process  prevents  their  exfoliation  and subsequent replacement by permanent teeth. After the adjacent permanent teeth have erupted, the ankylosed tooth appears to have submerged below the level of occlusion. This illusion is explained by the fact that there has been continued growth of the alveolar process and also that the crown height of the deciduous tooth is less than that of the adjacent permanent teeth, so that the relative level of occlusion has been changed, not the position of the deciduous tooth

Hypocalcemia

Enamel  Hypoplasia  due  to  Hypocalcemia : Tetany,  induced by a decreased level of calcium in the blood, may result from several conditions, the most common being vitamin D  deficiency  and  parathyroid  deficiency  (parathyroprivic tetany). In tetany the serum calcium level may fall as low as 6–8 mg per 100 ml, and at this level enamel hypoplasia is frequently  produced  in  teeth  developing  concomitantly.  This type of enamel hypoplasia is usually of the pitting variety and thus  does  not  differ  from  that  resulting  from  a  nutritional disturbance or exanthematous disease

Nasopalatine duct cyst

The most common of the nonodontogenic cyst, the nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) is a developmental cyst, non-neoplastic in nature.  Its  location  is  peculiar  and  specific  in  that  it  affects the midline anterior maxilla

Epidermoid cysts

Epidermoid cysts may occur at any time in life, but they are most common in the third and fourth decades of life

Papilloma

The  papilloma  is  an  exophytic  growth made  up  of  numerous,  small  finger  like  projections  which result in a lesion with a roughened, verrucous or ‘cauliflower like’  surface.  It  is  nearly  always  a  well  circumscribed pedunculated  tumor,  occasionally  sessile.  It  is  painless, usually  white  but  sometimes  pink  in color.  Intraorally  it  is found most commonly on the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa, gingiva and palate, particularly that area adjacent to the uvula

Oral nevi

The most common mucosal type of oral nevi is the intramucosal nevus, which  accounts  for  more  than  one  half  of  all  reported  oral nevi. The common blue nevus is the second most common type found in the oral cavity. The blue nevi is commoner in the  mouth  than  in  the  skin;  which  account  for  25–36%  of all  oral  nevi,  according  to  different  studies.  Junctional  and compound nevi account for only 3–6% of all oral nevi

Oral nevi

Oral nevi most commonly occur on the hard palate, with almost 40% presenting in that location. The second most common location is the buccal mucosa (20% of cases). Other common locations include the vermilion border of the lip and the labial mucosa. The second most common location is the buccal mucosa (20% of cases). Other common locations include the vermilion border of the lip and the labial mucosa. Roughly 10% of all types of oral nevi are found on the gingiva. Only one mucosal nevus has been reported on the tongue or floor of the mouth

Leukoplakia

Leukoplakia  (white  patch)  is  the  most  common  potentially malignant lesion of the oral mucosa. However, its usage should be limited exclusively to the clinical context by the exclusion of other lesions, which present as oral white plaques. Such lesions are lichen planus (hypertrophic), chronic cheek-bite (morsicatio),  frictional  keratosis,  tobacco-induced  keratosis (nicotine  stomatitis),  leuko edema  and  white  sponge  nevus

Basal cell carcinoma

The most common malignancy in humans, basal cell carcinoma develops most frequently on the exposed surfaces of the skin, the face and the scalp in middle-aged or elderly persons. People with  fair complexion  who  have  spent  much  of  their  lives out of doors are often victims of this lesion, but it is by no means confined to such persons. It is slow growing and rarely metastasizes, but it can cause significant local destruction and disfigurement if neglected or treated inadequately

Nodular basal cell carcinoma

This  is  the  most  common variety of basal cell carcinoma. It begins as a small, slightly elevated papule with a central depression which ulcerates, heals over and then breaks down again. Very mild trauma may  cause  bleeding.  One  or  more  telangiectatic  blood vessels are usually seen coursing over the borders around the  central  depression.  It  enlarges,  but  still  evidences periods  of  attempted  healing.  Eventually,  the  crusting ulcer which appears superficial, develops a smooth, rolled border representing tumor cells spreading laterally beneath the skin. Untreated lesions continue to enlarge, infiltrate adjacent and deeper tissues and may even erode deeply into cartilage or bone

Epidermoid carcinoma

The epidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm  of  the  oral  cavity.  Although  it  may  occur  at  any intraoral site, certain sites are more frequently involved than others

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most common  genetic  lesion  in  human  neoplasia  and  p53  is mutated  in  up  to  80%  of  oral  cancers.  In  oral  SCC,  p53 mutation  correlates  with  a  history  of  heavy  smoking  and is  associated  with  increased  epithelial  cell  proliferation

Tongue carcinoma

Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most common  genetic  lesion  in  human  neoplasia  and  p53  is mutated  in  up  to  80%  of  oral  cancers.  In  oral  SCC,  p53 mutation  correlates  with  a  history  of  heavy  smoking  and is  associated  with  increased  epithelial  cell  proliferation

Malignant melanoma

Malignant melanoma is a neoplasm of epidermal melanocytes. It is one of the more biologically unpredictable and deadly of all human neoplasms. Although it is the third most common cancer of the skin (basal and squamous cell carcinomas are more prevalent), it accounts for only 3% of all such malignancies. However,  it  results  in  over  83%  of  all  deaths  due  to  skin cancer in the United States

Superficial spreading melanoma

Superficial  spreading  melanoma  is  the  most  common cutaneous  melanoma  in  Cauca sians.  It  accounts  for  nearly 65% of cutaneous melanomas. It exists in a radial-growth phase which  has  been  called  premalignant  melanosis  or  pagetoid melanoma in situ. The lesion presents as a tan, brown, black or admixed lesion on sun-exposed skin, especially the back. It  also  occurs  on  the  skin  of  the  head  and  neck,  chest  and abdomen and the extremities. The radial-growth phase may last for several months to several years. The vertical-growth phase is characterized by an increase in size, change in color, nodularity and, at times, ulceration

Oral Fibroma

Oral Fibroma and Fibromatoses Fibroma : This  connective  tissue  tumor  is  the  most  common  benign soft  tissue  neoplasm  occurring  in  the  oral  cavity.  Most fibromas  represent  reactive  focal  fibrous  hyperplasia  due  to trauma  or  local  irritation.  Although  the  term  focal  fibrous hyperplasia more accurately describes the clinical appearance and pathogenesis of this entity, it is not commonly used

Fibroma

A  fibroma  may  occur  at  any  oral  site, most  commonly  it  is  seen  on  the  buccal  mucosa  along  the plane of occlusion. Other frequent sites are the gingiva, buccal mucosa, the tongue, lips and the palate

Giant cell fibroma

It appears as an asymptomatic sessile or pedunculated nodule that is less than 1 cm in diameter. Often, it has a bosselated or somewhat papillary surface. Most cases are  diagnosed  in  persons  aged  10–30  years,  and  no  gender predilection exists. The most common site is the mandibular gingiva, followed by the maxillary gingiva, the tongue, and the palate

Hemangioma

Hemangioma  affects  as  many  as  12%  infants  in  whites, but  it  rarely  occurs  in  darker-skinned  individuals.  Vascular malformations are also more common in whites. Hemangiomas are about three times more common in females than in males. But for venous malformations gender ratio is reported to be 1:1.The most commonly affected facial bones are the mandible, the maxilla, and the nasal bones. Intraosseous lesions affect the mandible more often than the maxilla, with a ratio of 2:1. Involvement of the zygoma is rare. Intramuscular hemangiomas in the oral region are most commonly seen in the masseter, comprising 5% of all intramuscular hemangiomas

Intravascular angiomatosis

Intravascular angiomatosis, also referred to in the literature most commonly under the terms hemangioendotheliome vegetant intravasculaire of Masson, Masson’s pseudoangiosarcoma,  and  intravascular  papillary  endothelial  hyperplasia,  is actually an unusual form of an organizing thrombus, although it is often mistaken for a vascular tumor, especially a malignant one such as angiosarcoma

Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome

The  skin  lesions of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome ) are  most  common  on the face, neck, and chest, although any area may be involved .  Involvement  of  the  oral  mucous  membrane constitutes  an  important  feature  of  the  disease,  the  most commonly affected areas being the lips, gingiva, buccal mucosa and palate, as well as the floor of the mouth and the tongue

Lymphangioma

The  most  common  head  and  neck  location of lymphangioma is  the  lateral neck, where this lesion typically contains large cystic spaces and is commonly called cystic lymphangioma or cystic hygroma

Intraoral lymphangioma

The  intraoral  lymphangioma  most commonly occurs on the tongue, but is seen also on the palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. The superficial lesions  are  manifested  as  papillary  lesions  which  may  be  of the  same  color  as  the  surrounding  mucosa  or  of  a  slightly redder hue. The deeper lesions appear as diffuse nodules or masses without any significant change in surface texture or color

Oral focal mucinosis

Oral focal mucinosis, the oral counterpart of a dermal lesion known as cutaneous focal mucinosis and/or cutaneous myxoid cyst, is the lesion most commonly misdiagnosed as an intraoral soft tissue myxoma